ESI

Overview
Extent
    Global
Spatial Resolution
    4km
Data Source(s)
    NOAA Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR) and USDA-ARS Hydrology and Remote Sensing Lab (HRSL)
Science Partner

Description

The Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) is an indicator of anomalous evapotranspiration (ET) conditions that can be used for drought monitoring. ESI describes temporal anomalies in the ratio of actual-to-potential ET (ETf), highlighting areas with anomalously high or low rates of ET across the land surface. Actual ET is estimated using the satellite-based ET model Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI), where ET is estimated via a land-surface energy balance using remotely sensed land-surface temperature (LST) (Anderson et al. 1997; 2007a,b; 2011). LST is a fast response variable, providing proxy information on rapidly evolving surface soil moisture and crop stress conditions. ESI has proven useful for detecting “flash drought”, brought on by periods of hot, dry and windy conditions leading to rapid soil moisture depletion.

4 week ESI: 4 week timescale
12 week ESI: 12 week timescale

Technical Information

Feature
Detail
Extent
Global
Period of Record
2001-present
Spatial Resolution
4km
Temporal Resolution
4 week or 12 week
Data Summaries
trend and statistical significance, spatial aggregations, time series
Data Source(s)
NOAA Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR) and USDA-ARS Hydrology and Remote Sensing Lab (HRSL)
Data Formats
raster (geotiff), raster tile (tile ID), time series (.csv, .xls, .json, .geojson)
Sources

Anderson, M. C., J. M. Norman, J. R. Mecikalski, J. P. Otkin, and W. P. Kustas, 2007a: A climatological study of evapotranspiration and moisture stress across the continental U.S. based on thermal remote sensing: I. Model formulation. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D10117, doi:10110.11029/12006JD007506.

Anderson, M. C., J. M. Norman, J. R. Mecikalski, J. P. Otkin, and W. P. Kustas, 2007b: A climatological study of evapotranspiration and moisture stress across the continental U.S. based on thermal remote sensing: II. Surface moisture climatology. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D11112, doi:11110.11029/12006JD007507.

Anderson, M. C., C. R. Hain, B. Wardlow, J. R. Mecikalski, and W. P. Kustas (2011), Evaluation of a drought index based on thermal remote sensing of evapotranspiration over the continental U.S., J. Climate, 24, 2025-2044.

Otkin, J. A., Anderson, M. C., Hain, C., Mladenova, I. E., Basara, J. B., & Svoboda, M. (2013). Examining rapid onset drought development using the thermal infrared–based evaporative stress index. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 14(4), 1057-1074.

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